project on akbar the great

Akbar's effort to evolve a meeting point among the representatives of various religions was not very successful, as each of them attempted to assert the superiority of their respective religions by denouncing other religions. Ain-e-Akbari mentions that during his travels and also while at home, Akbar drank water from the Ganges river, which he called ‘the water of immortality’. Akbar had the surviving defenders massacred and their heads displayed upon towers erected throughout the region, in order to demonstrate his authority. During this period Akbar even financed the pilgrimages of many poor Muslims from the Mughal Empire and also funded the foundations of the Qadiriyya Sufi Order's dervish lodge in the Hijaz. Akbar was a great innovator as far as coinage in concerned. In 1558, Akbar took possession of Ajmer, the aperture to Rajputana, after the defeat and flight of its Muslim ruler. He accepted Islam on the holy day of 21 March 1546. [154], The Akbarnāma (Persian: اکبر نامہ‎), which literally means Book of Akbar, is an official biographical account of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r. 1542–1605), written in Persian. The empire's permanent standing army was quite small and the imperial forces mostly consisted of contingents maintained by the mansabdars. [143] Jain authors also wrote about their experience at the Mughal court in Sanskrit texts that are still largely unknown to Mughal historians.[144]. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realizing that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. [17], Akbar was accorded the epithet "the Great" due to his many accomplishments,[18] among which was his record of unbeaten military campaigns that both established and consolidated Mughal rule in the Indian subcontinent. [48], In 1586, Akbar negotiated a pact with Abdullah Khan in which the Mughals agreed to remain neutral during the Uzbek invasion of Safavid held Khorasan. [43] However, the ostensible casus belli was that the rebel Mirzas, who had previously been driven out of India, were now operating out of a base in southern Gujarat. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. The fifteen-year-long project eventually produced twelve volumes with 1,400 paintings in which “Persian delicacy and flat linear forms jostle with Hindustani vigor and exuberant color”. Akbar the Great was born on 14 October 1542, at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh. These Ottoman Admirals sought to end the growing threats of the Portuguese Empire during their Indian Ocean campaigns. [29] A Mughal army under the command of his foster brother, Adham Khan, and a Mughal commander, Pir Muhammad Khan, invaded Malwa. [34] The Mughals had already established domination over parts of northern Rajputana in Mewar, Ajmer, and Nagor. "[44] The Hindu officers, in turn, were additionally inhibited by the traditional taboo against crossing the Indus. Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Akbar (Akbar the Great), his full name was Abu’l-Fath Jalal Uddin Muhammad Akbar. After his death the … Surat, the commercial capital of the region and other coastal cities soon capitulated to the Mughals. Holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. [52] It was intimately connected with the Mughals since the time of their ancestor, Timur, the warlord who had conquered much of South, Central, and Western Asia in the 14th century. [50] Akbar had built a large and secure empire for himself, while Persian power had declined. This book explores the logical extrapolation of this, and other Dynamics. Urged on by his foster mother, Maham Anaga, and his relatives, Akbar decided to dispense with the services of Bairam Khan. [134] However, it is also accepted that the policy of sulh-e-kul, which formed the essence of Din-i-Ilahi, was adopted by Akbar not merely for religious purposes, but as a part of general imperial administrative policy. Over the next six years, the Mughals contained the Yusufzai in the mountain valleys, and forced the submission of many chiefs in Swat and Bajaur. Special people were stationed at Sorun and later Haridwar to dispatch water, in sealed jars, to wherever he was stationed. Other ranks between 10 and 5000 were assigned to other members of the nobility. [44][47] The Afghan tribes on the border were also restless, partly on account of the hostility of the Yusufzai of Bajaur and Swat, and partly owing to the activity of a new religious leader, Bayazid, the founder of the Roshaniyya sect. [50], Akbar's system of central government was based on the system that had evolved since the Delhi Sultanate, but the functions of various departments were carefully reorganised by laying down detailed regulations for their functioning, Akbar set about reforming the administration of his empire's land revenue by adopting a system that had been used by Sher Shah Suri. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Akbar himself was a great patron of art and culture. However, Bairam Khan was ultimately able to prevail over the nobles and it was decided that the Mughals would march against the strongest of the Sur rulers, Sikandar Shah Suri, in the Punjab. [40] Udai Singh's son and successor, Pratap Singh, was later defeated by the Mughals at the Battle of Haldighati in 1576. [44] They were, according to Abul Fazl "afraid of the cold of Afghanistan. [19], Organisational reforms were accompanied by innovations in cannons, fortifications, and the use of elephants. Full Text Search January 29th 2001 Canadian Copyright: 1072425 Nov 12 th 2009 Due to the ideas presented in this book, I have had to use various terms and ... ...e various terms and words that are not found in dictionaries: beginning with the title. [68], The Kacchwaha Rajput, Raja Bharmal, of Amber, who had come to Akbar's court shortly after the latter's accession, entered into an alliance by giving his daughter Harkha Bai in marriage to the emperor. Ranthambore was held by the Hada Rajputs and reputed to be the most powerful fortress in India. [112] From the 15th century, a number of rulers in various parts of the country adopted a more liberal policy of religious tolerance, attempting to foster communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims. Akbar and his forces occupied Lahore and then seized Multan in the Punjab. [46] For thirteen years, beginning in 1585, Akbar remained in the north, shifting his capital to Lahore in the Punjab while dealing with challenges from beyond the Khyber Pass. [33] Most Rajput states accepted Akbar's suzerainty; the ruler of Mewar, Udai Singh, however, remained outside the imperial fold. Other sources indicate Akbar simply lost interest in the city[64] or realised it was not militarily defensible. He rarely indulged in cruelty and is said to have been affectionate towards his relatives. However, this placed hardship on the peasantry because tax rates were fixed on the basis of prices prevailing in the imperial court, which were often higher than those in the countryside. It was officially incorporated as a province of the Mughal Empire. The soul is encouraged to purify itself through yearning of God. His nose is straight and small though not insignificant. Akbar employed strict measures to ensure that the quality of the armed forces was maintained at a high level; horses were regularly inspected and only Arabian horses were normally employed. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. While the reign of both Babur and Humayun represented turmoil, Akbar's relative long reign of 50 years allowed him to experiment with coinage. [59] Zamindars of every area were required to provide loans and agricultural implements in times of need, to encourage farmers to plough as much land as possible and to sow seeds of superior quality. This event was followed by a rebellion of Muslim clerics led by Mullah Muhammad Yazdi and Muiz-ul-Mulk, the chief Qadi of Bengal in the year 1581, when these rebels wanted to overthrow Akbar and insert his brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim ruler of Kabul on the Mughal throne. [43] Akbar crossed the Rajputana and reached Ahmedabad in eleven days - a journey that normally took six weeks. [139] He had renounced beef, and forbade the sale of all meats on certain days. [63] The mansabdars were remunerated well for their services and constituted the highest paid military service in the world at the time.[62]. "[140], It was rumored that each night a Brahman priest, suspended on a string cot pulled up to the window of Akbar's bedchamber, would captivate the emperor with tales of Hindu gods. No imperial power in India based on the Indo-Gangetic plains could be secure if a rival centre of power existed on its flank in Rajputana. Akbar on hearing this ordered imperial forces to attack Kalyandas at Siwana. He often plunged on his horse into the flooded river during the rainy seasons and safely crossed it. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim the Mughal throne. "[149], Akbar was not tall but powerfully built and very agile. [67][68], However, Akbar's policy of matrimonial alliances marked a departure in India from previous practice in that the marriage itself marked the beginning of a new order of relations, wherein the Hindu Rajputs who married their daughters or sisters to him would be treated on par with his Muslim fathers-in-law and brothers in-law in all respects except being able to dine and pray with him or take Muslim wives. 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